In his outline of the history of interpretation, Koester deals with:
- Ancient interpretation are futuristic or timeless
- Joachim of Fiore and church renewal
- Luther as the heir of earlier approaches, and Luther’s own distinctive contribution
- Dispensational interpretations (both post-millennialists and pre-millennialists), which Koester critiques in three paragraphs
- Historical interpretations as an alternative to the excesses of futuristic interpretations
- Theological interpretations with an emphasis on Interpretation and Faith (cf. Caird)
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